Thursday, January 14, 2016

Embedded System Classification

Embedded systems are classified based on its component blocks, functional requirements and application.
Embedded System Classification
Embedded systems are broadly classified in to three types based on hardware and software blocks/elements.
Small - Designed with a single 8 or 16-bit micro-controller for the purpose of receiving inputs and control outputs. Few examples are, 
  • Automatic chocolate vending machine
  • Stepper motor controller for a robotics system
  • Washing or cooking system
  • Multitasking toys
Medium - Designed with a single or 16 or 32 bit micro-controller or DSP's for the purpose of real time multitasking and data processing. Few examples are,
  • Computer Networking Systems
  • Entertainment systems
  • Embedded firewall / Router
  • Signal tracking system
Large or Complex or Sophisticated - Designed with multiple micro-controllers and numerous hardware components. Its software includes OS and various libraries for intra and inters communications. Few examples are,
  • Embedded systems for wireless LAN & for convergent technology devices
  • Security products & high speed network security
  • gigabit rate encryption rate products
  • Embedded system for real time video & speech

Based on functional requirements embedded systems are classified as,
Independent or Standalone - It do not require a host or operating system like a computer, it works by itself. It takes the input, processes it and control output. Few examples are,
  • mp3 players
  • digital cameras
  • video game consoles
  • microwave ovens
  • temperature measurement systems.
Real Time – It has time constraints and follows the time deadlines for task completion. It is classified into two types such as hard (Response must occur before the deadline) and soft (Response should occur before the deadline most of the time) real time systems. Few examples are,
  • vehicle systems for automobiles, subways, aircraft, railways, and ships
  • traffic control for highways, airspace, railway tracks, and shipping lanes
  • process control for power plants, chemical plants, and consumer products such as soft drinks and beer
  • medical systems for radiation therapy, patient monitoring, and defibrillation
  • military uses such as firing weapons, tracking, and command and control
  • manufacturing systems with robots
  • telephone, radio, and satellite communications
  • computer games
  • multimedia systems that provide text, graphic, audio, and video interfaces
  • household systems for monitoring and controlling appliances
  • building managers that control such entities as heat, lights, doors, and elevators
Networked – It depends on network to access the resources. Wired or Wireless Network can be LAN, WAN or the internet. Few examples are,
  • web based security system
  • wireless sensor systems
Mobile - It is hand held or portable embedded device. Few examples are,
smart phones 
  • ipad
  • digital camera
  • PDA

Based on application, there are 4 types of embedded systems.
General – similar to traditional computer systems, in a smaller package, PDA’s, portable games
Communication – cell phones
Signal Processing – video and audio
Control – real time feedback control, automotive, aerospace, appliances



Related topics:
Embedded System Definition   |   Embedded System Applications   |   Embedded System Characteristics   |   Embedded System Components   |   Embedded System Symbols

List of topics: Embedded System

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