Friday, September 30, 2016

Embedded System Glossary – M

Embedded System Terminology - M

MAC Address - The networking address located on networking hardware. MAC addresses are internationally unique due to the management of allocation of the upper 24-bits of these addresses by the IEEE organization.
Machine Language - A basic language consisting of ones and zeros that hardware components within an embedded system directly transmit, store, and/or execute.
Medium Scale Integration (MSI) - A reference to the number of electronic components in an IC. A MSI chip is an IC containing 100-3,000 electronic components per chip.
Memory Cell - Physical memory circuit that can store one bit of memory.
Memory Management Unit (MMU) - A circuit used to translate logical addresses into physical addresses (memory mapping), as well as handling memory security, controlling cache, handling bus arbitration between the CPU and memory, and generating appropriate exceptions.
Memory Map - A table or diagram containing the name and address range of each peripheral and memory device within a processor's memory space
Memory mapped I/O - A common hardware design methodology in which peripheral control and status registers are mapped into the memory space rather than the I/O space
Memory space - A processor's standard address space.
Meter - A measurement device that measures some form of electrical energy, such as voltage, current, or power.
Microcontroller - Processors that have most of the system memory and peripherals integrated on the chip.
Micromonitor - A device that monitors three conditions vital to processor-controlled systems: power supply, software execution, and external override.
Microphone - A type of transducer that converts sound waves into electrical current. There are many types of microphones used on embedded boards, including condenser microphones which use changes in capacitance in proportion to changes in sound waves to produce its conversions, dynamic microphone which use a coil that vibrates to sound waves, and a magnetic field to generate a voltage that varies in proportion to sound variations, to name a few.
Microprocessor - Processors that contain a minimal set of integrated memory and I/O peripherals.
Microprocessor Supervisor - A device that monitors a host microprocessor or microcontroller's supply voltage and, in some cases, its activity. It monitors for a fault condition and takes appropriate action, usually issuing a reset to the microprocessor.
MISRA C - A set of 127 guidelines for the use of C in safety-critical software
Monitor - A language-level intertask synchronization primitive. Java is the only language in the embedded systems space that supports monitors.
Most Significant Bit (MSb) - The bit furthest to the left of any binary version of a number.
Most Significant Byte (MSB) - The 8 bits furthest to the left of any binary version of a number; for example, the two digits furthest to the left of any hexadecimal version of a number larger than a byte.
Multiply and Accumulate - Describes a special CPU instruction that performs both a multiplication and an addition in a single instruction cycle.
Multiprocessing - The use of more than one processor in a single computer system. So-called multiprocessor systems usually have a common memory space through which all of the processors can communicate and share data
Multitasking - The execution of multiple tasks in parallel.
Multithreading - See Multitasking
Multivibrator - A type of sequential logical circuit designed so that one or more of its outputs are fed back as input.
Mutex - An operating system data structure used by tasks to ensure exclusive access to shared variables or hardware registers.
Mutual Exclusion - A guarantee of exclusive access to a shared resource.

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Related topics:
Embedded System Architecture   |   Embedded Hardware Architecture   |   Embedded Software Architecture   |   Embedded Software Definition   |   Embedded System Acronyms   |   Embedded System Symbols

List of topics: Embedded System

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